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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 
ISSN: 2319-7064 
SJIF (2022): 7.942

Cognitive Performance, Zeitgeber Entrainment Acknowledgement, Mitochondrial Activity, Work Hour Melanopic-Circadian Alignment and Improvement in Social Behaviour: (Includes) A Prospective Study of up to 19 Office Goers: Salvation Series

An insight to the facts, research, design and specification of the office luminaires for the circadian alignment, healthy LQI- Lighting quality  index 

Abstract: The need for Healthy (Forming the parameters of Light Quality Index-LQI, Physiological Evidence based office lighting),  with smart controls. It all began with the inquisitiveness that how light as a zeitgeber influences the molecular mechanism are sensing  the environment for the time cues? How circadian is disrupted or aligned, what is the connection between immune system and light, why  there are chances of being prone to some types of cancer-with relation to light, how retina gets damaged, effects of white LED exposure  on retinal pigment epithelium, relationship of metabolism and muscular atrophy with respect to light and many of these inquisitiveness.

1. Introduction

The idea that there can be an “unambiguous technique” for  human-bio favourable lighting like tenable white without  considering the bioblue transition to the dim grey  appearanceand in the absence of other non-visible and  visible parameters is totally unrealistic, because of the non  synchronisation of the indoor skylight dynamics in  concurrence with the outdoor skylight dynamics,  tremendous variability between individuals based on their  age, genetics, environmental factors, individual physiology,  eating habits, and wake up or the sleep timings and our  behavioural aspects. The harmony of the glands is accomplished by constantly  synchronizing our body’s atoms, glands, genes, molecules,  cells hormones in alignment of time cues- the LIGHT.

2. How the project started?

When DPA moved its Mumbai office to a new location they enlisted healthy lighting Design, their in-house group of  illuminating experts, to solve the projects lighting  challenges. The new space in the Ahmedabad’s based Office  Tower is a conventional mix of open-area workstations,  private offices and conference rooms with low 11’ 5”  ceilings throughout.

The project’s lighting objectives were established “to  provide wellness, healthy, interactive, an ergonomic and  visually luminance balanced workspace,” means, “That  evenly illuminating the ceilings, walls and work surfaces,  while CS & EML levels the space and lighting should help  the occupants with the better cognitive functions,  minimizing glare and unwanted reflections.” Considering the limitations of traditional recessed & suspended fixtures, these objectives were easier said than  done. The challenge was also to create aesthetically bright  environments


Until now we were concerned with defined lux levels,  tuneable white light, UGR, CRI and the w/soft. Now there’s  a product that offers controlled CS, CR ratio, EML, retino hypothalamic activation to trigger pineal & pituitary glands  with the designed SPD for special bio-red & bio-blue  technology in line with irradiance value to help out  physiology of the body also helping our 3-neurotransmitters,  cognitive functions brightness, uniform distribution and  exceptional energy performance.

Volume 11 Issue 4, April 2022 
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: SR22416151122 DOI: 10.21275/SR22416151122 807

Bio red+Bio blue with irradiance controlled values along  with spd’s tunable-2700K-5700K

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 
ISSN: 2319-7064 
SJIF (2022): 7.942

3. Proposed Standards for Light Quality

Being tenacious and ascertaining a healthier lighting space  always requires a process of trading off some aesthetical and  volumetric aspects of the space for healthier future gains.  However, this has been a very thick proposition from an  architectural and interior point of view, especially in the  office and the residential segments.  

We need to strategies w.r.t. legislative to be proposed and  implemented regarding LQI-INDOOR LIGHT QUALITY  INDEX., as there is an exponential rise in severe neuro and  retinal disorders as well as the related illnesses. This is due  to the inappropriate forms and sources of light that are  contributing negatively to our health are: 

  • Retinal damage 
  • Brain fatigue 
  • Stress 
  • Migraine 
  • Insomnia 
  • EFD 
  • Cancer
  • Obesity 
  • Age related Macular degeneration 
  • Skin diseases 

3.1 How does the LQI work?

The standard of LQI can be broadly defined as the  combination of visible and non-visible parameters  (Wavelength, frequency, radiance, and irradiance, and  photons, visual and non-visual acuity) for our health and  wellbeing. The higher the LQI value, the greater the levels  of these healthy parameters inducing the physiological and  psychological benefits to the inhabitants For example, an  LQI value of 80 (out of 100) represents good healthy  lighting with respect to circadian alignment, ATP  production, serotonin levels, melatonin balance and visual  acuity as a rejuvenated space. 

The LQI can be categorised into three different zones. Each  category corresponds to a different level of health and  wellbeing concern. Each category also has a specific  features of the light as a product, components, is  deliverables in terms of efficacy, lumens, flicker ratio, THD,  Gamut values, CCT ratio, CRI, α-opic ratio EML, CS etc  along with the presence of radiance and irradiance values,  non-visible wavelength and its corresponding ranges  subjected to the physiological. The purpose of the LQI is to help people know how the  Light quality impacts their health and wellbeing. It must  NOT contribute to

  1. Retinal fatigue 
  2. Brain fatigue 
  3. Migraine

values and limits..
It must HAVE mentioned outcomes 

  • Rejuvenation 
  • Circadian alignment and not the drive 
  • Improvements in the cognitive skills 
  • Activation of Solitrol to generate Vitamin D
  • Better mitochondrial balance while having the presence  of NIR*/FIR* 

3.2 Why is LQI important?

The business of lighting has grown Multi-folds over the past  one decade and so do the technical understanding on the  same embraced with the skills with respect to creativity, but  the fundamentals of physiology in relation to light is still to  reach those numbers.  LQI is much more than just furnishing an appropriate  quantity of light like lux levels, efficacies, R values, CRI,  CCT, Macadam step etc… 

There are many psychological as well as physiological  factors that has to be covered under of lighting quality index  (LQI). Lighting quality cannot be expressed simply in  terms of photometric measures nor can there be a self explicit ways applicable formula for good quality lighting,  but surely the lighting quality as expected and desired must  be HEALTHY and not just smart or cost effective.

Volume 11 Issue 4, April 2022 
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 
Paper ID: SR22416151122 DOI: 10.21275/SR22416151122 808 

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN: 2319-7064 
SJIF (2022): 7.942

3.3 Objectives of Light Quality Index (LQI)

The DNA of our lighting industry changed with the arrival  of LEDs. Thus our parameters w.r.t. the biology has to be  restructured. The LQI primarily works on the contribution of  lighting parameters (visible and non-visible) on human (the  occupants) physiology and the psychology.  Depending upon the indoor spaces and the layouts with  respect to the topography the LQI parameters can be reset.  For instance, LQI parameters for South Pole for an indoor or  outdoor application will differ from the inhabitants of North  Pole. The study of the sets of individuals is very crucial as  the physiology of sets of human beings will differ and thus there cannot be one single yardstick to govern LQI. To make it easier to understand, the LQI can have  mentioned pathways to be formed: 

  • Affects of different spectrums on human health
  • By an appropriate use of lighting controls, tuneable white  light blending with biored* and bioblue* lights to induce  replica of the nonvisible and visible parameters of light  {dawn, full sunny day & dusk timelines.} 
  • Combination of appropriate forms of LEDs.
  • Avoiding the direct view of light sources, incorporating a  lighting design to reduce the number of lights in a  pragmatic manner. 
  • Allowing the maximum parameters of Sunlight through  the glass enveloped buildings 

Need for an appropriate design for office lighting: SALVATION* series CAMA  – Girish Bhardwaj, Tashi Aggarwal

It’s the need for the hour to re think and adapt lighting  product design and the lighting consultancy which must  contribute towards the Circular economy and biodiversity,  health and wellbeing parameters rather lux or illuminance,  cost benefits or CAPEX / OPEX point of views. 

The design from SALVATION* seriesCAMA (Circadian  Alignment &Mitochondrial Algorithm) based delivers both  visual and non-visual benefits with respect to physiology,  luminance / illuminance, visual acuity for the occupants. We  have adopted the methodology towards the optimization for  efficacy, LOR, TM-30 regulations, CRI, EML, CS and need  for boosting mitochondrial activities to boost our immune  systems as well as our cell regeneration while maintain the  melatonin/ cortisol ratios. 

Algorithms are based on the astronomical clocks for  resetting of the desired SPDs and colour corrections with the  an appropriate form of BIO BLUE* and Bio RED*

Introduction to the Salvation series:

Apart from the visual perception or the acuity, it is very well  established that light is the governor of our hormones and it  is very essential to maintain the harmony amongst the  glands, hormones and the neurotransmitters. For example, our biological clock is regulated by the circadian and diurnal rhythms through the intrinsically  photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that transmit  light stimuli to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which  governs our pituitary and pineal gland with negative  transactional feedback loop systems..

Similarly, molecules which are chromophores’, absorbs the  wavelengths emitted by the light source. There is an optical  tissue window which varies from 600 nm to 1400 nm (  infrared spectrum). The chroma force in tissues which  absorbs the light energy. These chroma force are found in  MITOCHONDRIA. MITOCHONDRIA, in these we have specific molecule  known as Cytochrome C oxidase, which is responsible to  produce energy within MITOCHONDRIA. This means  Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP), which is the end product of  energy correlation and is the fuel our cells need for  transporting irons for metabolism. 

As compared to the traditional lights in the name of  HCVL/HCL/Circadian drive the phenomenon of these office  lighting is different and advanced in terms of technology and  health benefits as we are focussing more on the circadian  alignment and physiological benefits* from the longer  wavelengths. SPECTRAL OPTIMIZATION FOR CAMA was utmost  essential. The Luminous efficacy w.r.t. lumens, irradiance  and joules / seconds has been given the priority along with  the EML/CS/TM-30-18 and CRI parameters. 

Salvation is a modular, adaptive & intelligent lighting tool  designed for the biological wellbeing of the humans while  meeting the visual needs of the occupants of any space.  This luminaire is designed using the proprietary technology  (patent pending) using specific wavelengths of light which  are scientifically proven to aid to photo-:bio-stimulation and  trigging cortisol, together with high quality LEDS which can  be tuned to the required colour temperature.  

The luminaire houses intelligent program embedded to tune  to the circadian requirements of the occupants of a spaces  along with triggering the photo stimulus at calculated  intervals throughout the day. High quality electronics & control ensures to meet stringent  flicker and EMF emission norms which further makes the  luminaire safe & secure for daily usage .

Light Source: Medical Grade LEDs of proprietary  wavelengths, Tenable 2700-5500K  
System Power: 70 Watts excluding standby power CRI /  GAI : >90 / > 78.9 (typical) 
Mounting: Ceiling Recessed for Grid / Gypsum / PoP type  ceiling structure  
Dimension: L: 600 X W:600 X H:125mm  
Control Gear: Electronic In-Built PF > 0.9 , THD < 10% ,  IEC Compliant for Safety , Performance, Flicker , & EMF/I  – Dimmable, Tunable via proprietary control software over

Volume 11 Issue 4, April 2022 
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 
Paper ID: SR22416151122 DOI: 10.21275/SR22416151122 809 

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN: 2319-7064 
SJIF (2022): 7.942

Tunable White Tunable White 2700K 5500K  
Bio Blue* Bio Red*

Study Objectives for the project as a case study to  implement the research work:

To examine the association between bio-red, bio blue,  NzER, FzIR and swift switchovers of Kelvins (2700-5500K)  during office hours. 
Methods: A total of 19 office goers who were subjected to SALVATION SERIES. From morning 9:30-10:00 AM were  subjected with blubio+4000K trigger the pituitary gland 
From 10:00 AM-1:30 PM they were subjected under bio blue+5500K 
From 2:15 PM-2:30 PM they were subjected under bio-red  (NzIR+680). 
From 2:30 PM – 4:30 PM they were subjected under bio  blue+5500K 
From 4:30PM–5:30 PM they were subjected under 3000K 

The controlled (auto and manual) ways of implementation of  bioblue* transition to the dim grey appearanceand vice  versa to trigger either the pituitary or the pineal glands  (depending upon the time of the day) in concurrence  with the tuneable white spectrum (with controlled  intensities of the light)was give utmost important along  with the task lighting and lighting during the work break sessions. In the present study as baseline and were followed up to 25  to 45 years of age. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 10  hours,


Because all light sources were adjusted to provide the same  horizontal as well as vertical illumination from table till 25  inches on a vertical plane (the standard measure that lighting  designers use to illuminate indoor spaces), and because the  spectral power distributions of the chosen LED light sources  were significantly diverse, the intensity of total visible 

Light entering the eye (measured vertically at eye level with the subjects seated at the conference table) varied between  the light sources. This provided the opportunity to determine  if the melatonin which was influenced by corneal light metrics (irradiance in μW/cm2, photon irradiance in  photons/cm2/s, photopic illuminance in lux). Individual  pupil sizes and macular pigment optical density were not  measured and were not taken into account. There was a  significant correlation between light intensity by any of  these metrics and the melatonin results.

We next examined how well the most commonly used  circadian lighting calculators, the circadian stimulus (CS;  Rea and Figueiro, 2018), CIE melanopic irradiance (CIE 026S), and the closely related equivalent melanopic lux  (EML) calculator the occupants were subjected under these  conditions of variable LED light sources. 

Apart from this the presence of NIR with the controlled  ratios is utmost important for the applications like office  lighting & healthcare units. Thus its not only aligning the  circadian rhythm but also to induce the physiological  parameters though the fed form of energy available in LEDs,  all thanks to the advancement in the field of lighting which  definitely is improvising the missing LED fed frequencies  and the wavelengths which are must for humans, when  spending more than 60% of their time in their work  respective places. 

4. Analysis and implementation of the design  and the luminaires

Volume 11 Issue 4, April 2022 
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 
Paper ID: SR22416151122 DOI: 10.21275/SR22416151122 810 

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 
ISSN: 2319-7064 
SJIF (2022): 7.942

5. Final Conclusion

a) It’s not only the tuneable white spectrum which helps the  shifting gears in the levels of melatonin (or cortisol) but  it’s the process of unification in the dynamics of white  spectrum causing the appearance of the scattered blue to  grey in the sky or vice versa (With respect to the  luminance and illuminance in the entire outdoor space).

b) We do not need any validations or research on this, if  you want to experience, look up above the sky during  dawn or dusk (Be there out in the open space at least 20  minutes prior to dusk or dawn hours)… 
c) Apart from the circadian alignment in few of the  employees / occupants, the enhanced improvement in the  behaviour and marked enhancements in the cognitive  skills were also noticeable. 
d) Lighting layout and the product design played a very  vital role in biophilic design. The sense of rejuvenation  was experienced by the occupants. 
e) Finally a bold and appropriate step towards the  contribution in circular economy while providing the  lights on the rental basis. 

6. Acknowledgements from the Client

The purpose of choosing an appropriate light and its effect  for any building (indoors), is not only the involvement of  commercial or technical aspects, but it’s the series of  physiological & neurobiological factors. The evident  incremental in cognitive performance, reduced stress, better  sleep nap & over all acknowledgement of impact of time  cues. The project’s lighting design was further complicated by its  ambitions for energy performance. DPA was seeking a  physiologists & psychologists feedback with a voluntary  system for wellness & health.  

We carried out the audit and the analysis for the same with  some of the toughest assessing parameters, and adherence to  CS026 With demands for quality visual ergonomics running  up against restrictive energy codes,  

DPA’s offices were precisely the kind of space that tests the  limits of conventional lighting. “If we went with traditional  recessed lighting, I knew we would have to compromise  somewhere.”  The research on wellness, health and physiology led DPA’s  team to consider Salvation series™, a new family of  recessed and suspended luminaries. My colleagues didn’t believe that a light can be a medicine  to keep us away from many of visual and non-visual impacts  on our health and body. They thought that the light is very bright and clean was the  only solution 

“People walk into our offices now and feel that they’re in  the most appropriate, productive, stress free (limbic) &  natural environment.”  As per Mr. Abay. R. K, the Managing Director of DPA  “Salavation series was the best investment we could have  made. This is the office Luminaire we’ve been waiting for.”

Volume 11 Issue 4, April 2022 
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 
Paper ID: SR22416151122 DOI: 10.21275/SR22416151122 811

Girish Bhardwaj

Composed by: “Girish Bhardwaj is an Inventor, Author, Entrepreneur, Engineer, Lighting Therapist, Educationist, Lighting and Wellbeing Advisor with the experience of 25 years!”

InnoHEALTH magazine digital team

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